Medicare is Australia’s universal health scheme. It is a Commonwealth government program that guarantees all citizens (and some overseas visitors) have access to a wide range of health services at little or no cost. The government has established a Medicare Review Taskforce to review all of the Medicare items to ensure they are aligned with contemporary clinical evidence and practice and improve health outcomes for patients. Within the Taskforce’s brief there is considerable scope to review and advise on all aspects which would contribute to a modern, transparent and responsive system. This includes not only making recommendations about new items or services being added to the MBS, but also about an MBS structure that could better accommodate changing health service models.